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This is material collected by CELOS researchers about playgrounds and their turf struggles. The story is ongoing.(Media articles about playgrounds and child safety)
While wood fibre is considered both safe and economical (it's more expensive than pea gravel, but cheaper than rubber), it did not receive a high rating in a 2003 study involving 37 new play structures installed by schools in the Toronto District School Board.
The report, “School playground surfacing and arm fractures in children: A cluster randomized trial comparing sand to wood chip surfaces,” found that out of 259 injuries, 44 were upper extremity fractures.
And while a sand base showed an arm-fracture rate of 1.9 per 100,000 students, the wood chip statistics were five times higher, at 9.4 arm fractures per 100,000 students.
For all injuries, the rate for sand was 7.3 per 100,000 students; for the wood fibre it was about three and a half times greater at 25.3 per 100,000.
http://www.studioludo.org/london-study-of-playgrounds https://medium.com/sidewalk-talk/why-europes-parks-and-playgrounds-are-so-much-more-active-than-america-s-d1963d569205 https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/10/world/europe/britain-playgrounds-risk.html